Inca Digital’s Investigation Team is often tasked with collecting hidden data on crypto market participants. Although the blockchain space supplies troves of open data to sift through, trading venue activity often remains a mystery due to unreliable trade data and a lack of transparency from trading venue owners. To fill these data gaps, we leverage a variety of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques that can produce reliable datasets based on the digital footprint of crypto users. In the example below, we show how particular exchange users can be identified and geotagged.
To underline the importance of such datasets, we take derivatives traders operating on the major derivatives venues and try to show that their geographic locations are far more diverse than what is claimed by the exchange operators and is allowed by local securities regulations.
For this report, we include in our sample some popular derivatives platforms such as Bybit, Bitfinex, FTX, Binance Futures, BitMEX, OKEx, and Huobi Futures. Most of them are providing derivatives trading as their major service along with spot markets.
To start, we needed to identify platform users who are actively engaged in derivatives trading, rather than trading spot or just being curious about the exchange website or its activities. For this, we trained BERT models on a small set of known traders' Tweets and analyzed unique embeddings that trigger a positive classification. This approach helped us discover particular tweet patterns that are inherent in those Twitter users who are involved in trading on derivatives platforms.
The tweet patterns include PNL (profit and loss) proofs, a specific screenshot that displays a derivatives trade execution, a referral link posting, and tweets mentioning a UID (trader’s unique identifier) along with a support request.
Screenshot of a PnL proof
Trader’s unique identifier mentions
PNL proofs and the associated screenshots are meant to brag, showing a derivatives trader’s successful trades. The BERT model output for derivatives traders allowed us to collect a sample of 2,939 unique Twitter users engaged in derivatives trading on Bybit, FTX, Binance Futures, BitMEX, OKEx, Bitfinex and Huobi Futures.
When dealing with geolocating social network users, we typically employ 3 complementary components of the NTerminal NLP module: metadata, language identification, and named entity recognition (NER).
From our sample of 2,939 unique Twitter users engaged in derivatives trading on FTX, Huobi Futures, Binance Futures, OKEx, Bybit, Bitfinex, and Bitmex, we identified the locations of 2,164 traders globally, and 372 from the United States specifically.
Location distribution of Twitter users involved in derivative trading on FTX, Huobi Futures, Binance Futures, OKEx, Bybit, Bitfinex, and Bitmex
Country distribution of the identified derivatives traders per exchange
Twitter API Geodata
The simplest of the 3 geolocation methods analyzes post metadata from the Twitter API. The geolocation metadata, residing in the tweet itself or a user’s bio, allowed us to identify the location of 911 of the 2,939 derivatives traders sampled.
Location of derivatives traders (Twitter API)
Most popular locations of derivatives exchange users according to Twitter API data (100 total)
The language identification technique relies on utilizing geographically isolated languages to identify, with high confidence, where a user lives. It does not correlate with the Twitter API metadata and provides a unique signal that can be overlaid on the other datasets to provide more accurate localization. In some cases, a regional variety of a language is characteristic of a particular region, which makes geotagging even more precise. The trader sample utilized in this analysis includes various dialects, such as Simplified and Traditional Chinese, as well as Latinized versions of Japanese, Hindi, and Korean. In the derivatives trader sample dataset, this approach allowed us to identify 21 unique spoken languages and identify the location of 189 out of 2,939 traders over 14 territories.
Top languages spoken by derivatives traders, excluding English (language identification)
Location of derivatives traders (language identification)
NER for Place Recognition
The final method is the most sophisticated, requiring a much more extensive speech sample collection and state-of-the-art multi-language Geographical Named Entity Recognition models. By running hundreds of tweets of each of the identified users through our models, NER geotagged 2,079 out of 2,939 derivative traders.
By referencing favorite coffee shops, upcoming concerts, ongoing elections, landmarks, and even traffic jams, Twitter users produce invaluable geotags that can be aggregated to predict the true residency of a derivatives trader, regardless of the statements made during their KYC onboarding process and the paperwork they provide to the trading venue.
Examples of geographical named entities mentioned by derivative traders
These tags are often much more reliable and precise than any other methods we use, enabling city-level granularity.
Location of derivatives traders (NER)
Country location of derivatives traders (total: 108 countries)
All Methods Combined
The true power of natural language processing for geotagging entities - crypto traders or otherwise - comes from combining all methods and overlaying geotags from multiple sources. This often gives enough corroborating evidence that an exchange user is actively trading certain financial products, rather than just visiting a website out of curiosity or using it for other purposes.
We geotagged 2,164 out of 2,939 unique derivative traders from 116 countries.
Derivatives trader map: countries, 2,164 unique users (NER, Language Identification, and Twitter API combined)
Most popular locations of derivative exchange users (116 total)
Trader Location (Venue Breakdown)
Exchange distribution of the identified derivatives traders by country
Identified derivatives trader distribution per exchange
3-component Model and API Discrepancy
A number of geotagged users have different location information acquired from the Twitter API relative to the model estimation. According to the model’s estimate, most of the users that are supposed to reside in the United States, United Kingdom and Turkey, are showing other locations in their bio.
Trading venues often rely on IP address attribution-based filters, which are easy to circumvent by using a VPN with an exit node in another jurisdiction. NLP geolocation is not correlated to the actual traffic path and therefore resistant to such location spoofing methods.
The purpose of this analysis is not to single out any of the exchanges discussed in this report. In fact, we see similar problems with unregistered financial product offerings across most crypto trading venues with significant volumes.